Iodine Global Network (IGN)

30.11.2014   IDD Newsletter 4/2014

In this issue:
  • Afghanistan
  • Argentina
  • Latin America workshops
  • Exposure to radioiodine
  • Albania
  • UK
  • Canada
  • Egypt meetings
  • India: IDD Prevention Day
  • Meetings and Announcements
  • Abstracts

Articles

Across Afghanistan, children are now iodine sufficient

(Dr. Bashir Ahmad Hamid, Dr. Ibrahim Shinwari, and Dr. Ahmad Wali Aminee)
Troubled by decades of civil war, Afghanistan was unable to introduce IDD preventive measures until 2003. After a decade of progress, women and children are now iodine sufficient. Afghanistan is a country with a historical high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) throughout the country. The 2004 National Nutrition Survey (NNS) showed that women and children were moderately iodine deficient. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 49 mcg/L in children, 42 mcg/L in young women, and 37.5 mcg/L among pregnant women.

En todo el país de Afganistán los niños son ahora yodosuficientes

(Dr. Bashir Ahmad Hamid, Dr. Ibrahim Shinwari, and Dr. Ahmad Wali Aminee)
Afganistán no pudo introducir medidas preventivas para los trastornos por carencia de yodo hasta el año 2003 debido a dificultades ocasionadas por décadas de guerra civil. Después de una década de progreso, las mujeres y los niños presentan ahora un consumo suficiente de yodo.

Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Argentina

(Sonia López-Linares and Eduardo A. Pretell)
The Northwest Region of Argentina, including the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, Tucuman, and Santiago del Estero, has long been recognized as an iodine deficient area. The iodization of salt for human consumption in Argentina was legislated in 1967 and implemented in 1970. However, the quality of iodized salt was not monitored, and the ThyroMobil study in 1998 showed that only about 70% of the salt was adequately iodized. Regional surveys conducted in 1999–2008 have shown low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and high rates of endemic goiter (>5%) in school-age children (SAC) mainly in the Northern provinces.

Deficiencia de yodo en mujeres embarazadas de Argentina

(Sonia López-Linares y Eduardo A. Pretell)
La Región del Noroeste de Argentina (NOA), la cual incluye las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, Tucumán y Santiago del Estero, hace mucho que ha sido reconocida comoun área deficiente en yodo. La yodación de la sal para consumo humano en Argentina fue legislada en 1967 e implementada en 1970. Sin embargo, la calidad de la sal yodada no fue monitoreada, y el estudio ThyroMobil en 1998 mostró que sólo el 70% de la sal estaba adecuadamente yodada.

Achieving sustainable elimination of IDD in Latin America

(Eduardo A. Pretell)
In 2013–2014, Iodine Global Network in collaboration with UNICEF’s Regional Office in Panama conducted three sub-regional workshops in Latin America, as part of the Sustainable Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Latin America (STELA) project. Their aim was to strengthen existing iodization programs by identifying the key factors that enable sustainability. The focus was on integrated approaches based on nationally owned programs designed to overcome the challenges to USI in each of the sub-regions.

Logrando la eliminación sostenible de los DDI Latino América

(Eduardo E Pretell)
Entre 2013-2014, la Red Global del Yodo, en colaboración con la Oficina Regional de UNICEF en Panamá, llevó a cabo tres seminarios subregionales en Latino América, como parte del proyecto Eliminación Sostenible de los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo en Latinoamérica (STELA). El objetivo principal fue fortalecer los programas de yodación existentes mediante la identificación de los factores clave que permiten la sostenibilidad. Los seminarios se centraron en estrategias integradas basadas en programas nacionales diseñados para superar las dificultades de la IUS en cada una de las subregiones.

Minimizing thyroid damage from nuclear fallout: KI prophylaxis and the importance of population iodine sufficiency

(Abridged from: Braverman et al. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2014; 11: 4158–4200)
The fission of uranium, which takes place in the course of a nuclear accident, produces large amounts of radioactive iodine-131 that may be released into the atmosphere. Depending on the atmospheric conditions, the radioactive plume may travel as far as 300 miles. Iodine-131 can then enter the human body by inhalation, or by ingestion of contaminated food. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to precipitate the development of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 resulted in 5,000 cases of thyroid cancer in children, with a nearly 100-fold increase in its incidence.

Only 60% of household salt in Albania is adequately iodized, and coverage is lower in poor rural areas

(Excerpted from: Enkeleda Kadiu et al. American Journal of Engineering Research. 2014; 3(5): 203–206)
This recent study set out to determine the iodine concentration in household salt, the coverage of adequately iodized salt, the use of non-iodized salt, and the usefulness of salt as a carrier of iodine in Albania. A second goal was to relate the findings to socioeconomic status in Albania.

Iodine deficiency in the UK: cutting back on milk may be partially to blame

(Excerpted from Sandra Walsh, The Daily Mail, Nov 17, 2014)
Studies show that up to two in three British girls and women may have low iodine levels. Since spotting Faye’s goiter, Dr Lansley has noticed an increasing number of people in the street with goiters near his home in Yorkshire. He says: “When I was doing my medical training in the late Sixties, I was at a hospital in Ankara in Turkey, and there were lots of people suffering from goiters.

Severe iodine deficiency in a Canadian boy with food allergies

(Excerpted from: Pacaud D et al. JCEM. 1995; 80(9): 2574–2576)
A 6-year-old French-Canadian boy was seen for symptoms of goiter and hypothyroidism of acute onset. He was referred to the endocrinology clinic with a 3-month history of fatigue. Severe asthma and atopic dermatitis had started during infancy. The boy had multiple food allergies. His diet was very restricted and consisted of oat cereal, horse meat, broccoli, sweet potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, apples, and water. His thyroid was diffusely increased in size. Thyroid function tests revealed severe primary hypothyroidism with undetectable antibodies. Physical exam showed several classic signs of hypothyroidism: facial edema was noticeable, and the skin felt very dry and was eczematous.

Tracking the progress of IDD elimination in Egypt

(Dr. Izzeldin Hussein)
On August 20-28, a meeting of Egypt‘s IDD Coalition was held in Cairo. The meeting’s main objectives were (i) to secure technical support for Egypt during the preparation for the 2014 National Survey and ensure the Iodine Global Network’s (IGN) future involvement, (ii) to encourage policy makers and program managers to accelerate IDD elimination and promote USI, (iii) to coordinate a meeting with the salt industry, and (iv) to discuss plans for social marketing and promotion of iodized salt.

India celebrates Global IDD Prevention Day

As the world observed the Global IDD Prevention Day on October 21st, celebrations were held in the north-eastern Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Manipur, one of the most highly goiter endemic regions in the world.