Iodine Global Network (IGN)

01.08.2010   IDD Newsletter 3/2010

In this issue:
  • Focus on pregnancy
  • Serbia
  • United States
  • Bosnia
  • New Zealand
  • Italy
  • Iodized salt and UI
  • Sustaining USI
  • Meetings and Announcements
  • Abstracts

Articles

Iodine deficiency during pregnancy

Over the past decade, there has been increasing focus on iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Iodine is critical for optimal fetal development. Yet 38 million newborns in developing countries every year remain unprotected from the lifelong consequences of brain damage associated with iodine deficiency. How can we ensure adequate iodine intake in this vulnerable group? This issue of the IDD Newsletter highlights efforts in countries as diverse as Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand, Italy, Serbia and the United States ...

Both iodized salt and iodine supplements are important sources of iodine for pregnant women in Serbia

(Dragana Jovic, Tanja Knezevic, Frits van der Haar, Alexandra Jovic)
Historically, goiter and cretinism were significant public health problems in Yugoslavia. The first regulations on salt iodization were introduced in 1937 at a low level of 5mg KI/kg for household salt directed to the high goiter areas. During a Congress of Preventive Medicine in 1950, the iodization level was increased to 10mg KI/kg in 1954 and expanded to all the salt for human and animal consumption. Ten years later, epidemiological surveys found a 4-fold reduction in the goiter prevalence among school children. The present legislation in Serbia mandates that all edible salt should be iodized at 12-18 mg iodine per kg salt, while both KI and KIO3 are permitted ...

Pregnant and reproductive-age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency, particularly if they do not regularly consume dairy products

(Cria Perrine, Kirsten Herrick, Mary Serdula and Kevin Sullivan)
Although the U.S. population has traditionally been considered iodine sufficient, median urinary iodine con-centrations (UIC) have decreased 50% since the 1970s. The 2001–2006 NHANES data from urine iodine spot tests for pregnant (n = 326), lactating (n = 53), and nonpregnant, nonlacta-ting (n = 1437) women of reproductive age (15–44 y) were analyzed. WHO criteria were used to define iodine suf-ficiency (median UIC: 150–249 ug/L among pregnant women; >100 ug/L among lactating women; and 100–199 ug/L among nonpregnant, nonlactating women) ...

An effective iodized salt program provides adequate iodine for pregnant women in Bosnia and Herzegovina

(Selena Bajraktarevi and Borislav Karanfilski )
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) was tra-ditionally iodine deficient with regions of endemic goiter. The first prophylaxis for iodine deficiency was introduced in 1956 and consisted of adding 7 mg of iodine per kg of salt. Subsequent sur-veys, conducted by the Public Health Institute of BH, in 1963-1973 showed a decrease in the occurrence of goiter. However, the results of a 1999 survey showed that goiter remained in 25% of schoolchildren. A seminar organised by UNICEF BH on iodine deficiency in the country was held in 1999. Conclusions from the seminar included the recommendations that: a) 20-30 mg/kg of iodine should be added to salt; b) the more stable potassium iodate should be used for that purpose; and c) a national committee for control of IDD should be established ...

New Zealand pregnant women offered new iodine supplement

On July 1, 2010, a new iodine tablet was launched targeted at pregnant and breastfeeding New Zealand women. The 150 ug iodine supplement will be subsidized, and recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and the New Zealand Ministry of Health for daily consumption by all women considering pregnancy, or who are currently pregnant or breastfeeding. Pregnant and breastfeeding women in New Zealand are not currently getting enough iodine and need to top up their intakes to meet their requirements. This new supplement, along with consumption of iodine containing foods, will help pregnant and breastfeeding women in New Zealand to meet their iodine requirements. New Zealand nutrition experts were asked for their views on this new supplement ...

Italian women using iodized salt before pregnancy have better thyroid functionthan those who only begin iodized salt use during pregnancy

In Europe, less than 50% pregnant women receive iodine-containing supplements, and for most women in this life stage, dietary iodized salt is the major source of iodine. Moleti and colleagues, at the University Polyclinic in Messina, Italy, performed a longitudinal study in young Italian women to investigate the effects of the duration of iodized salt consumption on maternal thyroid function during preg-nancy. They prospectively evaluated thyroid function in 100 consecutive thyroid antibody-negative pregnant women from a mildly iodine-deficient area. Sixty-two of these women had regularly used iodized salt for at least 2 yr prior to becoming pregnant and were classified as long-term users, and 38 had commenced iodized salt consumption upon becoming pregnant and were classified as short-term users ...

How much does availability of iodized salt improve iodine nutrition?

(Susan Horton)
We would expect broader distribution of iodized salt within countries would be associated with better iodine nutrition. A recent study shows that for both developed and developing countries, wider availability of iodized salt is associated with higher median urinary iodine excretion (UI) in schoolchildren (one of the more readily available indicators of iodine status) ...

Achieving and Sustaining Universal Salt Iodization:Reflection on Issues and Strategies

(Venkatesh Mannar and Annie Wesley)
It is well known that 15 to 20 high burden countries account for a significant proportion of the uniodized salt that is produced and consumed. The Micronutrient Initiative (MI) along with national governments, salt industry and international partner organizations including UNICEF, WFP and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD) has been actively involved in supporting salt iodization programs in several developing countries. This article reviews 6 countries as a sample set of countries to reflect a variety of issues faced and strategies used to deal with them in 2009 ...